🔥 Water Well Maintenance and Rehabilitation

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casing, grout, screen, open bore hole, and a well head configuration. require either replacement of screen or drilling a new well. Corrosion of screens can.


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Water Well Drilling - Water Well Screens - Kicking Horse Water Services, Golden BC

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Repair guy says the screen must be clogged, but clearing it out doesn't work often so we need to just replace the whole well. I don't know why.


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Well casing replacement

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johnson well screen, water well screen, well casing screen, stainless stless well screen.


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What is a Water Well Liner (or Packer)? What do I do if my well casing has Failed?

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Water wells require regular maintenance to ensure adequate water flow To prevent pump damage, replacement of a deteriorating screen.


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Water Well Drilling Outer Protective Casing (Explained)

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johnson well screen, water well screen, well casing screen, stainless stless well screen.


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Samsung Note 3 JUST THE GLASS Replacement (Note 2 as well)

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This 4" water well screen is 47 Inches long and made out of PVC Schedule 40 pipe. The slits are 8 gauge to filter the sand, mud, gravel and dirt out of the well.


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Industry Standard Well Screen

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The continuous-slot screen is widely used throughout the world for water, oil, and gas wells, and is the dominant screen type used in the water well industry. It is.


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Shallow Well Casing Pipe Installation

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The continuous-slot screen is widely used throughout the world for water, oil, and gas wells, and is the dominant screen type used in the water well industry. It is.


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Well Liner Install

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Today we start DC Well Drilling! The Family of Phil Doffing and his boys are taking over for the Carlson family and their successful business. Read more.


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Well Screen

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Repair guy says the screen must be clogged, but clearing it out doesn't work often so we need to just replace the whole well. I don't know why.


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Replacing Metal Filter Screen and Valve

In addition to the scheduling aspects of rehabilitating a water well or well pump, deciding if the well pump will remain in place or removed from the well has a tremendous impact on selecting the methods, chemicals, and time for the actual process. It should be noted well plugging due to mineral encrustation alone is relatively rare when not accompanied by some form of bacterial or biofilm growth. Defining a precise determination of well efficiency often means different things to different people. When scheduling rehabilitation of a specific well is initially considered, selecting one of two fundamental potential choices must be addressed and acted on:. The process may have to be repeated several times and concentrated in the specific region with the thickest encrustation for best results. This is shown in Figure 2, which demonstrates a severely plugged well screen. Another method uses water treatment injected to and within the aquifer itself in situ from an upgradient well during pumping and conditions the water before traveling to and impacting the problem well. Either situation leads to an increase in the entrance velocity. As always, I recommend enlisting and heeding the advice of knowledgeable and experienced individuals and well contractors who have had previous success with situations similar or exact to your application and the use of the best chemicals for the specific well. They also work when properly used and distributed within and into the filter pack. Chlorine works best when used as part of a preventive maintenance program and for bacterial control. Although we outlined various methods commonly used for well rehabilitation in Part 3, I reserved a more detailed discussion for now when I had the space to adequately cover the topic. Q 1 , Figure 1 , local aquifer dewatering, well to well interference, regional overpumping, changes in the aquifer head or storage coefficient, the relative capacity and recharge rate of the aquifer, or the water flow transmissivity qualities of the materials comprising the specific type of aquifer in use. During the previous three columns, we have reviewed and defined many basic concepts of well water chemistry and various electrochemical, biological, chemical, and physical causes of declining well and pump efficiency. The efficiency of an aquifer or well as separate values is not only difficult to define, but difficult to effectively control or remediate once the well has been constructed and in service for some time. There are also other methods using small explosive charges, combinations of chemical and mechanical methods, and various proprietary and many home-grown methods tailored to work within a specific marketplace and well and aquifer type. For one thing, conducting a video inspection before and after a well rehabilitation and recording the process provides a permanent visual record of the current condition of the well including depth, casing, screen, or perforation sizes and intervals, static water level, and the relative condition of the casing, welds, well screen or perforations, and other internal well components. This is due to the relatively larger working area and access to the full depth of the well afforded by removing the well pump and the ability to get into and work over the entire well screen or perforated section. Space does not permit a full treatment of every available chemical option and the procedures to use. In many cases, a significant increase or change in this gradient during pumping conditions may not be due to any real loss of actual well efficiency. Figure 1. This scenario typically indicates a permissible interval of up to one to three months is available for a combined well rehabilitation and pump repair procedure. Aquifer and Well Efficiency Defined The efficiency of an aquifer or well as separate values is not only difficult to define, but difficult to effectively control or remediate once the well has been constructed and in service for some time. This will usually restore or, at the very least, partially elevate the efficiency, head, and capacity potentials of the well pump. These include down-well methods imparting sonic waves sonar-jetting onto screen surfaces which loosen and dislodge scale, silt, and other impinged material. A slight difference between these points during static and pumping conditions is often an accepted and natural occurrence due to the hydraulic gradient of the underground water surface. However, there are four fundamental tenets I can state with reasonable certainty. In addition, unless a loaner or rental unit is temporarily installed, removing the well pump usually indicates the well is planned to be out of service for some time. In some cases a PVC or other material water observation sensing tube has been placed in the well during the original pump installation. Losses of efficiency in each are individual, but cumulative, until a final decimal result is obtained for each. Always verify the inhibitor is not designed or intended to protect one type of metal only and not all the metals present in the well. The brush is lowered on the drill or pipe string and alternately raised and lowered to dislodge built-up growth and sediments on the. This will be invaluable when selecting a rehabilitation method. We conducted downhole video inspections on several of these wells before and after treatment and the difference was usually remarkable. As with all treatment methods, safety procedures must be observed and adhered to when using this technique or any other process using chemicals of any type. This is well within the allowable time span for most irrigation or municipal systems with source redundancy. The vapors generated during mixing and preparation of a chemical solution are usually potentially hazardous to health and will cause breathing problems in an unventilated or enclosed space. For example, this is especially critical when multiple metals or alloys are used in the well. A water quality examination—by sampling water obtained before the well pump is pulled—and a video inspection can provide needed guidance to determine if the well problem is most likely due to physical, biological, corrosion, or chemical issues. In situations where the well pump is expected to be left in the well during service or rehabilitation, it is also important to only use chemicals and methods that will not be injurious to the components or surfaces of the well pump and well itself. He has more than 40 years of experience in the water well business, specializing in engineering and business management. A method well received in many regions of the United States is the use of carbon dioxide CO 2 injection. This is performed using inflatable rubber packers that isolate the process to shorter and separate intervals from as short as 2 feet up to 20 feet or more at a time Figure 7a. This type of record will also be invaluable to the future generations of well owners and contractors contemplating any future work on this well. This allows the well contractor, and in turn, the owner or client to fully consider all aspects of the reclaimed or adjusted well yield before proceeding with an expensive and possibly unnecessary pump repair or replacement, where downsizing may be indicated due to a permanent loss of well yield. Chlorine and various acids have been used for decades, often with mixed success due to the uncertainty of solution strength, mixture uniformity and distribution, and penetration into the screen and filter pack. Over the next three columns, we will continue examining this topic by detailing specific areas where we can evaluate the individual losses occurring in wells and pumping systems to determine the overall efficiency of each component along with the system in its entirety, and various ways to improve the efficiency of new and existing wells and pumping plants. While I was working in Alaska in , I was introduced to a treatment method the local drillers had used for years that works for applications with the well pump either in or out of the well. This is true for most irrigation wells operating seasonally and many municipal wells where system redundancy from alternate sources is usually available and the rehabilitation and pump repair processes are concurrently planned for the lower water consumption months of fall to spring. This process, when used with a well pump, provides the water and pressure necessary for jetting and also permits test pumping of isolated screen or well sections, which I have found to be invaluable when deciding where to concentrate rehabilitation and redevelopment as well as gauge the effectiveness of our efforts. For one, never mix or prepare a chemical solution inside an enclosed building or environment, without adequate ventilation, and without full knowledge of the impact the chemical mixing may have. Well surging using a surge block, airlift Figure 6 , or alternate cycles of starting and stopping well pumping seems to work best for perforations as most of the energy imparted from jetting is generally a hit-or-miss proposition. This may create a total downtime or loss of source period for up to 12 months. If a replacement well is warranted, an additional five or six months of downtime should be assumed in most cases. When acids are used, this typically means the acid must be blended or provided with an inhibitor specifically designed not to attack the metals in the well. Methods of well rehabilitation when the well pump remains in the well typically means the use of chlorine, acids, surfactants, dispersants, and other chemicals. Although this takes more time and work than most alternate efforts, the higher cost is generally returned due to better and more precise results. Always verify any chemicals planned for use will not be injurious to the material comprising the sensing tube. Next month, we will start to review the procedures and testing methods for determining the efficiency of a pumping plant and its individual parts. I have used this process numerous times over the past 40 years on wells with severe biofilm growth as well as in wells with residual old lineshaft lubricating oil floating on the water surface from oil-lubricated pumps with excellent results—often superior than when acids were used. Ideal water well at variable flows Q.{/INSERTKEYS}{/PARAGRAPH} The unwound strands are placed between two packer plates or flanges to create a brush for the full diameter of the well screen or casing and compressed to hold them in place. These include muriatic high-strength hydrochloric acid , sulfamic, hydroxyacetic glycolic , and sulfuric acids. Even though we cannot generally or easily control or modify many of the aspects or characteristics of the various types of aquifers we encounter and pump from, we have a definite control on the development and efficiency of the well structure itself. In some cases, particularly with those using submersible or vertical turbine pumps with check or foot valves, well surging or backflushing through the column pipe and bowl will be severely limited or not possible. You must identify the abilities, limitations, and available and potential qualities of the well in question, and the balance between expending a reasonable cost for the chemicals, equipment, and manpower resources required for an effective rehabilitation process with the likelihood of success. There are several powerful acids that can and have been used in water well rehabilitation for decades. Therefore, the proper use of an appropriate biocide along with an acid is recommended for complete and effective dispersion, especially in alluvial and many semi-consolidated or marine formations. If the well pump and all related equipment is removed from the well during rehabilitation, the available options for conducting the rehabilitation and the likelihood of success are both greater than with the well pump left in the well. As seen in Figure 4a, the brush can be easily shop-built using unwound wire rope strands for the bristles. In my opinion, there is virtually no excuse or negative reason not to conduct both a water quality examination and downhole video inspection of the entire wellbore and well screen before embarking on a formal well repair on a high value well. Jars are sometimes advised to be used to permit dislodging of the brush in tight or misaligned wells. In addition to a direct observation and confirmation of the physical conditions and any possible existing damage to the well, a video inspection usually permits a visual examination of possible isolated regions of high entrance velocity occurring through the well screen or perforations often indicated from the appearance of shiny or very clean surfaces , mechanically blocked or severely plugged screens or perforations, and the likely areas of water transmission and where to best concentrate rehabilitation efforts. {PARAGRAPH}{INSERTKEYS}Namely, outlining the well rehabilitation techniques that stabilize or lower the pumping lift component of total head and improve overall well performance—and some of the various methods used to conduct this process. The method uses a heated chlorine solution injected into the well, either directly down the borehole or within the annulus between the well pump and casing. As an example: All aquifers have a limitation as to the daily, seasonal, and yearly volume and the instantaneous flow rate that can be transmitted to a given well. This is an expensive and potentially long-term solution to a well problem and requires consideration of specific features to work and access to an upgradient site for oxygen creation and injection. This method, called Vyredox, provides oxidation to iron and manganese ions in the aquifer, resulting in precipitation of these elements well before they reach the pumping well. Generally, this process involves an additional two to three months to execute, which when combined with a well rehabilitation in advance will total around three to five months of downtime. This process has reportedly been used on wells throughout the country with favorable results, although the process at the present time is site specific and somewhat geographically limited and therefore more expensive for many situations. However, this type of installation greatly limits direct physical access to the well screen and casing and forces chemical treatment to be considered as the primary or sole treatment method along with using the well pump for well surging, pumping, chemical dilution and removal, and final flow testing. It may be the individual or combined result from a higher well pumping rate Q 2 vs. I have also used another unique method of rehabilitation chemical injection over the past years with excellent results. Most mechanical methods are most effective when used for those wells where the well pump has been removed from the well. Therefore, proper caution and care should always be applied when mixing or combining any chemicals or when using chemicals at all and all safety precautions related to handling, mixing, injection, and disposal must be observed. All acids also have potential safety issues associated with their use and combining with other chemical agents. The mixed use of bronze, brass, cast iron, and black or galvanized steel components is common in most well pumps and wells. Appropriate safety goggles, gloves, and equipment must also be used when handling, mixing, and injecting any chemical solution. The solution is created and thoroughly mixed in the drum while the chlorine is slowly introduced and mixed with the hot water. Upon complete mixing, the solution is then introduced into the desired screen or casing region needing the most treatment, preferably using a steel tremie pipe. This can often be used in introducing certain chemicals into the wellbore and toward the screened area Figure 3b. Each acid has advantages and disadvantages in use and application and contractors are advised to determine the best type of acid to use only after an initial water quality examination has been completed for the specific well conditions, material, and construction. On the other hand, the efficiency of a well is generally considered as the vertical difference in the dynamic water levels occurring between the interior of the well casing pumping water level vs. The amount of information usually gained from a simple one or two-hour video examination cannot be overstated. In these situations consider using a smaller diameter or alternate, weaker material for the brush, such as PVC or copper wire bristles, or scouring using high pressure water or air. Typically, an initial brushing of the well casing and screen will remove enough material to save at least one chemical treatment and can also provide better access to the filter pack and any potential plugging existing on the outside of the screen or within perforations for treatment. The use of either well swabbing or surging Figure 4b or jetting Figure 5 can be advantageous with a well screen, especially for chemical distribution and mixing and well redevelopment. One specific method I have had good success with is concentrating the chemical and rehabilitation efforts in shorter screen or perforated regions by jetting with or without the aid of a well pump. Most of the scraped material will dislodge and settle, so any accumulated material can then be bailed or airlifted from the bottom of the well.